NAPLAN’s Latest Last Legs

The news is that NAPLAN is on its way out. An article from SMH Education Editor Jordan Baker quotes Boston College’s Andy Hargreaves claiming tests such as NAPLAN are on their “last legs”. This has the ring of truth, since Professor Hargreaves is … who knows? We’re not told anything about who Hargreaves is, or why we should bother listening to him.

Perhaps Professor Hargreaves is correct, but we have reason to doubt it. And, Jordan Baker has been administering NAPLAN’s last rites for a while now. Last year, Baker wrote another article, on NAPLAN’s “death knell”.

Regular readers of this blog would be aware that this writer would love nothing more than to see ACARA sink into the sea, taking its idiotic tests and clueless curriculum with it. But it’s important to understand why, and why the argument for getting rid of NAPLAN is no gimme. It is here that we disagree with Hargreaves and (we suspect) Baker.

Baker quotes Hargreaves on national testing such as NAPLAN and its “unintended impact of students’ well-being and learning”:

[They include] students’ anxiety, teaching for the test, narrowing of the curriculum and teachers avoiding innovation in the years when the tests were conducted.

Let’s consider Hargreaves’ points in reverse order.

  • Innovation. Yes, a focus on NAPLAN would discourage innovation. Which would be a bad thing if the innovation wasn’t poisonous, techno-fetishistic nonsense. Hargreaves, someone, has to give a convincing argument that current educational innovation is generally positive. We’ll wait. We won’t hold our breath.    
  • Narrowing of the curriculum? We can only wish. The Australian Curriculum is a blivit, a bloated mass of pointlessness.
  • Teaching to the test is of course a bad thing. Except if it isn’t. If you have a good test then teaching to the test is a great thing.
  • Finally, we have to deal with students’ anxiety, a concern for which has turned into an academic industry. All those poor little petals having their egos bruised. Heaven forbid that we require students to struggle with the hard business of learning.

There is plenty to worry about with any national testing scheme: the age of the students, the frequency of the tests, the reporting and use of test results, and the ability to have an informed public discussion of all of this. But all of this is secondary.

The problem with the NAPLAN tests isn’t their “unintended consequences”. The problem with the NAPLAN tests is the tests. They’re shithouse.

 

PoSWW 5: Intelligence is not a Factor

The following PoSWW comes courtesy of Franz, who states that “when it comes to ‘stupid curricula, stupid texts and really monumentally stupid exams’ no Western country, with the possible exception of the US, is worse than Germany.” We take that as a challenge, and we’re waiting for Franz to back up his crazy-brave claim.

Franz’s PoSWW, however, has nothing to do with Germany. This PoSSW follows on from two of our previous posts, on idiotic questions appearing in New Zealand exams. Franz wrote to us, noting that the same style of question appears in the Oxford Year 8 text My Maths. Indeed, a number of versions of this ludicrous question appear in My Maths, all inventively awful in their own way. The two examples below are enough to give the flavour:

PoSWW 4: Overly Complex

This PoSWW comes courtesy of a smart Year 11 VCE student who, it appears, may be a rich source of such nonsense. It’s an exercise in the Jacaranda text MathsQuest 11, Specialist Mathematics (2019).

To be honest, we’re not sure the exercise below is a PoSWW. It may simply be a minor error, the likes of which are inevitable in any text, and of which it is uninteresting and unfair to nitpick. But, for the life of us, we have no idea what the authors might have intended to ask. Make of it what you will:

UPDATE: For those hoping that context will help make sense of the exercise, the section of the text is an introduction to factoring over complex numbers. And, the text’s answer to the above exercise is A = 2, B = 5, C = -1, D = 2.

The VCAA Dies Another Death

A while back we pointed out two issues with the 2018 Specialist Mathematics Exams. The Exam Reports (though, strangely, not Exam 1) are now online (here and here). (Update 27/02/19: Exam 1 is now also online.) Ignoring some fresh Hell suggested by the Exam 2 Report (B2(b), B3(c)(i), B6(e)), how did the VCAA address these issues?

Question 3(f) on Section B of Exam 2 was a clumsy and eccentrically worded question that covered material outside the curriculum. Unsurprisingly the Report made no mention of these issues. But, what about a blatant error by the Examiners? Would they remain silent in the face of such an error? Again?

Question 6 on Exam 1 (not online) required students to find the “change in momentum” of an accelerating particle. Unfortunately, the students were required to express this change in kg m s-2. The Exam had included the wrong units, just a careless typo, but a blatant error. The Report addressed this blatant error with the following:

Students who interpreted this question as asking for the average rate of change of momentum to be dimensionally consistent with the units and did this correctly were awarded marks accordingly.

That’s it. Not an honest word of having stuffed up. Not a hint of regret or apology. Just some weasely no-harm-no-foul bullshit.

 

 

WitCH 9: A Distant Hope

This WitCH (as is the accompanying PoSWW) is an exercise and solution from Cambridge’s Mathematical Methods Units 1 and 2, and is courtesy of the Evil Mathologer. (A reminder that WitCH 2, WitCH3, Witch 7 and WitCH 8 are still open for business.)

Update

As Number 8 and Potii pointed out, notation of the form AB is amtriguous, referring in turn to the line through A and B, the segment from A to B and the distance from A to B. (This lazy lack of definition appears to be systemic in the textbook.) And, as Potii pointed out, there’s nothing stopping A being the same point as C.

And, the typesetting sucks.

And, “therefore” dots suck.

PoSWW 3: Not the Right Angle

This PoSWW (as is the accompanying WitCH) is from Cambridge’s Mathematical Methods Units 1 and 2. and is courtesy of the Evil Mathologer. (A reminder, we continue to post on Cambridge not because their texts are worse than others, but simply because their badness is what we get to see. We welcome all emails with any suggestions for PoSWWs or WitCHes.)

We will update this PoSWW, below, after people have had a chance to comment.

Update

Similar to Witch 6, the above proof is self-indulgent crap, and obviously so. It is obviously not intended to be read by anyone.

One can argue how much detail should be given in such a proof, particularly in a subject and for a curriculum that systemically trashes the concept of proof. But it is difficult to see why the diagram below, coupled with the obvious equations and an easy word, wouldn’t suffice.

 

WitCH 8: Oblique Reasoning

A reminder, WitCH 2, WitCH 3 and WitCH 7 are also open for business. Our new WitCH comes courtesy of John the Merciless. Once again, it is from Cambridge’s text Specialist Mathematics VCE Units 3 & 4 (2019). The text provides a general definition and some instruction, followed by a number of examples, one of which we have included below. Have fun.

Update

With John the Impatient’s permission, I’ve removed John’s comments for now, to create a clean slate. It’s up for other readers to do the work here, and (the royal) we are prepared to wait (as is the continuing case for WitCh 2 and Witch 3).

This WitCH is probably difficult for a Specialist teacher (and much more so for other teachers). But it is also important: the instruction and the example, and the subsequent exercises, are deeply flawed. (If anybody can confirm that  exercise 6G 17(f) exists in a current electronic or hard copy version, please indicate so in the comments.)

Update (05/02/20)

It is obviously long, long past time to sort out this godawful mess. We apologise to all those industrious commenters, who nailed the essential wrongness, and whose hard work was left hanging. This will also be a very long update; you should pour yourself a stiff drink, grab the bottle and get comfy. For the benefit of the Twitter addicts, however, who now find it difficult to concentrate for more than two paragraphs, here’s the punchline:

Cambridge‘s notion of “non-vertical asymptote” is so vague, falling so short of a proper definition, it is close to meaningless and it is pointless. This leads to the claim \color{red}\boldsymbol{y \to \frac{x}{\sqrt{x}}}} in Example 31 being flawed in three distinct ways. In particular, it follows from Cambridge that the “curve” \color{red}\boldsymbol{y = \frac{x+1}{\sqrt{x-1}}} is a “non-vertical asymptote” to the function \color{red}\boldsymbol{F(x) = \frac{x+1}{\sqrt{x-1}}}.

The source of Cambridge‘s confusion is also easy to state:

More complicated asymptotes cannot be defined, interpreted or computed in the manner possible for simpler asymptotes.

Unfortunately, the discussion in Cambridge is so sparse and so far from coherent that directly critiquing the excerpt above would probably be incomprehensible. So, we’ll first try to make very careful sense of “non-vertical asymptotes”, taking some minor whacks at Cambridge along the way. Then, with that sense as foundation, it will be easy work to hammer the excerpt above. To simplify the discussion, we’ll only consider the asymptotes of a function \boldsymbol{F(x)} as \boldsymbol{x \to \infty}. Obviously, the case where \boldsymbol{x \to -\infty} can be handled in like manner, and vertical asymptotes are pretty straightforward. 

OK, take a swig and let’s go.

 

1. Horizontal Asymptotes

We’ll begin with the familiar and demon-free case, for asymptotes as horizontal lines. Consider, for example, the function

    \[\color{blue}\boldsymbol{g(x) = \frac{2x + 1}{x-3}\,.}\]

We can write \boldsymbol{g(x) = 2 \ + \ 7/(x-3)}, noting the second term is tiny when \boldsymbol{x} huge. So, we declare that \boldsymbol{g(x)} has the horizontal asymptote \boldsymbol{y = 2}.

Formally, the asymptote in this example is captured with limits. The underlying functional behaviour is \boldsymbol{g(x)\to 2} or, more officially, \boldsymbol{\lim\limits_{x\to\infty}g(x) = 2}. The limit formalism is of no benefit here, however, and is merely likely to confuse. The informal manner of thinking about and writing limits, as is standard in schools, suffices for the understanding of and computation of horizontal asymptotes.

Note also that horizontal asymptotes can easily be spotted with essentially no calculation. Consider the function

    \[\color{blue}\boldsymbol{h(x) = \frac{4x^2 + 2}{x^2 + 1}\,,}\]

which is Example 29 in Section 6G of Cambridge. Here, it is only the highest powers, the \boldsymbol{x^2} terms in the numerator and denominator, that matter; the \boldsymbol{x^2}s cancel, and so the function has horizontal asymptote \boldsymbol{y=4}. This simplification also applies to suitable rooty (algebraic) functions. The function

    \[\color{blue}\boldsymbol{k(x) = \frac{4x + 2}{\sqrt{x^2 + 1}}\,,}\]

for example, also has horizontal asymptote \boldsymbol{y=4}, for the same reason.

 

2. Linear Asymptotes

We’ll now consider general linear asymptotes, which are still reasonably straight-forward (and which include horizontal asymptotes as a special case). There are, however, two demons lurking, one conceptual and one computational. 

Cambridge begins with the example

    \[\color{blue}\boldsymbol{f(x) = \frac{8x^2 -3x+2}{x}\,.}\]

The function can be rewritten as \boldsymbol{f(x) = 8x -3  \ + \ 2/x}, and it seems simple enough: a similar “when \boldsymbol{x} is huge, the leftovers are tiny” intuition leads us to declare that \boldsymbol{f(x)} has the linear asymptote \boldsymbol{y = 8x -3}. The trouble is that the example, and the discussion that follows, are too simple, so that the demons remain hidden.

 

3. A Conceptual Demon

How do we formally (or semi-formally) express that a function has a linear asymptote? For the example above, Cambridge writes “f(x) will approach the line y = 8x – 3”. This is natural, intuitive and sufficiently clear. It is considering the asymptote to be a geometric object, as the line, which is fine at the school level.

What, however, if we want to think of the asymptote as the function \boldsymbol{g(x) = 8x -3}? The problem is that both \boldsymbol{f(x)} and \boldsymbol{8x-3} are zooming off to infinity, which means that writing \boldsymbol{f(x) \to 8x -3}, or anything similar, is essentially meaningless. Those arrows are shorthand for limits and, fundamentally, the limit of a function must be a number, not another function. (For vertical asymptotes we consider infinity to be an honorary number, which may seem dodgy, but which can be justified.)

The obvious way around this problem is simply to ignore it. As long as we stick to asymptotes of reasonably simple functions – rational functions and carefully chosen others – Cambridge’s intuitive approach is fine. But in the, um, unlikely event that our situation is not so simple, then we have to carefully consider the limiting behaviour of functions. So, we’ll continue.

Suppose that the function \boldsymbol{F(x)} appears to have the linear function \boldsymbol{L(x)} as asymptote. To capture this idea, the simple trick is to consider the difference of the two functions. If \boldsymbol{x} is huge then this difference should be tiny, and so \boldsymbol{L(x)} being the asymptote to \boldsymbol{F(x)} is captured by the limit statement

    \[\color{blue}\boxed{\boldsymbol{F(x)- L(x)\ \longrightarrow \ 0}}\]

Again, none of this is really necessary for capturing linear asymptotes of simple functions. But it is necessary, at least as underlying guidance, if we wish to consider less simple functions and/or more general asymptotes.

WARNING: It may seem as if our boxed definition of linear asymptote \boldsymbol{L(x)} would work just as well for \boldsymbol{L(x)} non-linear, but there is a trap. There is another, third demon to deal with. Before that, however, our second demon.

 

4. A Computational Demon

It is very import to understand that the simple, “highest powers” trick we indicated above for spotting horizontal asymptotes does not work for general linear asymptotes. Cambridge‘s introductory example \boldsymbol{f(x)} illustrates the issue, albeit poorly and with no subsequent examples. For a better illustration, we have Exercise 12 in Section 6G, which presents us with the function

    \[\color{blue}\boldsymbol{m(x) = \frac{4x^2 + 8}{2x +1}\,.}\]

Here, it would be invalid to divide the \boldsymbol{4x^2} by the \boldsymbol{2x} and then declare the linear asymptote to be \boldsymbol{y =2x}. The problem is the \boldsymbol{+1} in the denominator has an effect, and we are forced to perform long division or something similar to determine that effect. So, \boldsymbol{m(x) = 2x -1 \ + \ 10/\left(2x +1\right)}, and then it is clear that the linear asymptote is \boldsymbol{y =2x -1}.

All that is fine, as far as it goes. Cambridge routinely performs long division to correctly determine linear asymptotes (including horizontal asymptotes, for which the simpler highest powers trick would have sufficed). What, however, if the function is not rational? Consider, for example, Example 31 above. Can we safely ignore the \boldsymbol{-1} in the denominator of the function, as Cambridge has done? And, if so, why? 

In order to stay in the linear world for now, we’ll leave Example 31 and instead consider two other examples:

    \[\color{blue}\boldsymbol{p(x) = \frac{x^2}{\sqrt{x^2 -1}} \qquad\qquad q(x) = \frac{x^2}{\sqrt{x^2 -x}}\,.}\]

 So, are we permitted to ignore the \boldsymbol{-1} and the \boldsymbol{-x} in the denominators of \boldsymbol{p(x)} and \boldsymbol{q(x)}? It turns out that the answers are “Yes” and “No”: the function \boldsymbol{p(x)} has linear asymptote \boldsymbol{y =x}, but \boldsymbol{q(x)} has linear asymptote \boldsymbol{y =x +\frac12}.

The behaviour of \boldsymbol{p(x)} and \boldsymbol{q(x)} is, of course, anything but obvious. In particular, the “highest powers” and long division tricks are of no assistance here. Moreover, similar difficulties arise with the analysis of non-horizontal asymptotes of pretty much all rooty functions. It is essentially impossible for a Victorian school text to cover non-horizontal asymptotes of non-rational functions. The text must either work very hard, or it must cheat very hard; Cambridge takes the latter approach. 

 

5. A Nonlinear Demon

Almost there. We have non-linear “asymptotes” left to consider, which are fundamentally demonic. This is demonstrated by Cambridge‘s very first example, Example 26, which considers the function

    \[\color{blue}\boldsymbol{r(x) = \frac{x^4 +2}{x^2}\,.}\]

Dividing through by \boldsymbol{x^2} gives \boldsymbol{r(x) = x^2 + 2/{x^2}}, after which Cambridge baldly declares “The non-vertical asymptote has equation \boldsymbol{y = x^2}“. But why, exactly? All we have to go on is Cambridge‘s intuitive approach to \boldsymbol{f(x)} above. Intuitively, the function \boldsymbol{r(x)} approaches the parabola \boldsymbol{y = x^2}. That’s fine, and we can formalise it by setting \boldsymbol{Q(x)=x^2}. Then guided by our boxed definition above, we can write \boldsymbol{r(x) - Q(x) \ \to \ 0}, and we seem to have our asymptote.

The problem is that there are a zillion functions that will fit into that blue box. It is also true, for example, that \boldsymbol{r(x) - r(x) \ \to \ 0}. This means that \boldsymbol{r(x)} itself just as good an asymptote as \boldsymbol{Q(x)}. So, yes, one can reasonably declare that \boldsymbol{r(x)} is asymptotic to \boldsymbol{Q(x)}, but we cannot declare \boldsymbol{Q(x)} to be THE asymptote to \boldsymbol{r(x)}.

Of course we want asymptotes to be unique, so what do we do? There are two ways out of this mess, the first solution being to restrict the type of function that we’ll permit to be an asymptote. That’s intrinsically what we did when considering horizontal and linear asymptotes, and it is exactly why the multiple asymptote problem didn’t arise in those contexts: linear functions only had to compete with other linear functions. Now, for general rational functions, we must broaden the notion of asymptote, but it’s critical to not overdo it: we now permit polynomial asymptotes, but nothing more general. Then, every rational function will have a unique polynomial (possibly linear, possibly horizontal) asymptote. 

But now, what do we do for non-rational functions? These functions may naturally have rooty asymptotes, as illustrated by Example 31 above. Such functions can also be dealt with, by suitably and carefully generalising “polynomial asymptote”, but it’s all starting to get fussy and annoying. It is making a second solution much more attractive.

That second way out of this mess is to just give up on unique nonlinear “asymptotes”. Then, our blue box becomes a definition of two functions being “asymptotically equivalent”. We don’t get unique asymptotes, but we do get a clear way to think about the asymptotic behaviour of functions. (You can’t always get what you want, But if you try sometimes, you just might find )

One final comment. The computational demon we mentioned above is of course still around to bedevil non-linear asymptotes. This is well illustrated by Exercise 17, which considers the function

    \[\color{blue}\boldsymbol{s(x) = \frac{x^2 + x + 7}{\sqrt{2x+1}}\,.}\]

As discussed by commenters below, this exercise used to have a part (f), asking for the vertical asymptote. That part was deleted in later editions, and it is easy to guess why; the \boldsymbol{+1} in the denominator of \boldsymbol{s(x)} turns out to matter, so that the “highest powers” technique that Cambridge invalidly employs on such examples gives the wrong answer. 

6. The Devil in Cambridge‘s detail

Finally. We can now deal with the Cambridge excerpt above. There is no need to write at length here, since everything follows from the discussion above, as indicated. We begin with a clarification of the punchline:

The claim \color{red}y \to \frac{x}{\sqrt{x}}} in Example 31 is triply flawed: it is meaningless (conceptual demon); the calculation is invalid (computational demon); and the conclusion is wrong (nonlinear demon).

To be fair, it turns out that the -1 in the denominator of the function in Example 31 can be ignored, but not because of the highest powers trick that Cambridge appears to employ. This also means y = √x will be the non-linear asymptote to y = (x + 1)/√(x-1) if we suitably generalise the notion of “polynomial asymptote”. 

That’s plenty wrong, of course. But to round off, here are the other problems with the excerpt:

  • The “graph of y = f(x)” doesn’t approach anything. It is the function that approaches the asymptote.
  • Underlying the punchline, the definition of “non-vertical asymptote” is hopelessly vague and does not remotely mean what Cambridge thinks it means.
  • We do not “require √(x – 1) > 0; we require x – 1 > 0.

And, we’re done. Thank Christ.

WitCH 7: North by Southwest

Our new WitCH, below, comes courtesy of Charlie the Enforcer. Once again, this WitCH is from the 2018 SCSA Mathematical Methods Exam (here and here): it’s the gift that keeps on giving. (And a reminder, WitCH 2 and WitCH 3 still require attention are still unresolved.)

Question 11 and the solution in SCSA’s marking key are below. Happy hunting.

Update

John has pretty much caught it all. The killer issue is the use of the term “deceleration” in part (c) which, the solution implies, refers to the drone speeding up in the southerly direction. This is arguably permissible, since deceleration can be (though is far from universally) defined as a negative acceleration, and since way back in part (a) it was implied that North coincides with the positive x direction.

Permissible acts, however, can nonetheless be idiotic: voting Liberal or Republican, for example. And, to use “deceleration” on a high stakes exam to refer implicitly to increasing speed is idiotic. Moreover, to use “deceleration” in this manner immediately after explicitly indicating the “due south” direction of motion is truly ruly idiotic. Still not as idiotic as voting Liberal or Republican, but genuinely special-effort idiotic.

That’s enough to condemn the question, even by SCSA standards. But, the question is also awful in many other ways:

  • The question is boring and butt ugly.
  • No indication is given whether exact or numerical solutions are permitted or required.
  • Having a drone an arbitrary 5m up in the sky for a 1D problem is asking for trouble. For example:
  • The “displacement” of x(0) = 0 for a drone 5m up is pretty stupid.
  • “Where is the drone in relation to the [mysterious] pilot?” Um, kind of uppish?
  • “How far has the drone travelled …” is needlessly wordy and ambiguous. If you want a distance, for God’s sake say “distance”.
  • Given the position function x(t) is at hand, part (c) can easily and naturally be solved by hand. But of course why think about things when you can do mindless calculator crap?